Art is a world cultural heritage that must be preserved. There are many types of art, including dance, music, fine arts, and theater arts. One type of art that is still very thick . Dance is an art that relies on dynamic and rhythmic movements to express the implicit meaning of the movement to the audience.
Dance art contains aesthetic body movements to convey certain messages, thoughts, feelings, and atmosphere. According to Dr. Soedarsono, dance is an expression of the human soul through beautiful (aesthetic) rhythmic movements.
Judging from this understanding can be taken the meaning of the expression of the soul as the feelings and thoughts to be conveyed and the rhythmic movement is a movement that corresponds to the accompaniment, beats and rhythms of music that accompanies the dance so that the audience is fascinated, even the audience is expected to be carried away and understand the implied message want to be conveyed in the dance.
Aside from being a cultural art, dance also has other functions, among others, as a means for traditional ceremonies, entertainment, education, association, performances, distribution of therapy, and catharsis (soul cleansing). Each dance must have one of these functions.
For example, the pendet dance in Bali which is a means of traditional ceremonies is intended to provide offerings in the form of flowers. Other dances may only be a means of entertainment for the community. Whatever the function of the dance, there is at least the implicit meaning behind it.
In order to create an aesthetic rhythmic movement, elements of dance must be considered to build and create the body movement. Like an organization that has a chairman, secretary, treasurer, and members, as well as dance. There are two elements of the dance art that build it, namely the main elements and additional elements.
The main element of dance is the essential and essential element that must be inherent in a dance. If one of these elements is lost or not considered, then a ballet show will not be harmonious. It feels like something is lacking, even the audience can no longer understand the purpose of the dance.
Therefore, this main element is an important point in the success of a dance performed. Also, it becomes an important assessment if this dance becomes a performance that is considered by art experts. Here are three main elements in dance art:
Wiraga in Javanese means raga, which in the context of dance is usually known as movement. Dance must highlight dynamic, rhythmic, and aesthetic body movements. Although, indeed not all movements in a dance art have a specific purpose. Ordinary motion or pure motion is a movement in a dance that has no specific purpose, whereas meaningful motion is a movement in a dance that has deep meaning and has a specific purpose.
In general, through the movement of dancers, the audience can guess the character being played. For example, the movement of turning the wrist on a dance performed by a woman means flexibility or tenderness. Likewise, the waist-tapping movement in the dance performed by men can have a sense of authority and power.
It is impossible for a dance art to be merely a dancer moving around and without music accompanying. Music serves to accompany dancer movements. With the presence of music, a movement will have more meaning because it creates a certain atmosphere.
A dancer must be able to dance according to the rhythm, beat, and tempo of the accompanist so that it can be harmonious and aesthetic in the eyes of the audience. In addition, the rhythm can also be a sign for the dancer when to start or replace a movement. This is very useful when a dance is performed by many dancers so that each dancer does not depend on the movements of the other dancers but can equate itself with the accompaniment of the dancer.
Dance must be able to convey the message and mood to the audience through dancer’s movements and expressions. Therefore, a dancer must be able to animate and express the dance through facial expressions and character deepening. For example, if the character played is a gentle village girl, besides the graceful movements, the dancer must also display a supportive facial expression.